Definition

Diabetes insipidus (DI) is when the kidneys pass a large amount of urine that is made up of mostly water.

There are two forms:

  • Central diabetes insipidus (central DI)
  • Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI)

Causes

Central DI happens when the body does not make enough of a hormone that controls urine. The cause is not always known. Rarely, it can be from a faulty gene. Some causes are:

  • Inflammation
  • Surgery
  • Head injury
  • Tumors
  • Infection

NDI happens when the body makes the hormone that controls urine but the kidneys do not respond to it. Causes are:

  • Some medicines, such as lithium
  • Metabolic causes, such as too much calcium or too little potassium
  • Something that blocks the urinary tract
  • Not eating enough protein
Pituitary Gland
Nucleus factsheet image
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Risk Factors

DI is more common in people with other family members who have it. Central DI is more common in people with anterior pituitary hormone problems. NDI is more common in people who take lithium.

Symptoms

Symptoms may be:

  • Urinating more, often at night
  • Being very thirsty

Babies and children may be:

  • Fussy
  • Feed poorly
  • Not gaining weight
  • Urinating at night or wetting the bed

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. An exam may be done. Blood and urine tests will also be done.

These tests may be done to find the cause:

  • MRI scan
  • Lumbar puncture to test the fluid around the spine
  • Biopsy

Treatment

Central DI is treated with a man-made hormone that takes the place of the one that a person's body makes to control urine.

NDI may be treated with:

  • Drinking plenty of water
  • Treating the cause, such as too much calcium in the blood
  • Stopping or changing medicines, such as lithium

Prevention

There are no known ways to lower the chance of having DI.

Revision Information